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Pakistan and the United States Relations


In the early days of independence of pakistan, when it appeared that Britain was favouring India on the Subject of Kashmir, Pakistan looked longingly to the United States for friendship. Pakistan welcomed American Admiral Chester Nimitz as the first Plebiscite Administrator for Kashmir. But the United States was slow to responce the enthusiasm shown by Pakistan in the early days. Even after Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan's visit to the United States in 1951, Washington attempted to follow a neutral course to the conflict between India and Pakistan. United States foreign aid flowed into India appropriately heralded by Ambassador Chester Bowles, whose every move and statement demonstrated to Pakistan that Americans liked India best.

United States Policy towards Soviet Union enuciated by the secretary of State John Foster Dulles after 1953, brought a suddent change in the relations between Pakistan and the United States, advocating the creation of bi-lateral military pacts between the United States and non-communist countries and multi-lateral regional grouping to deter Soviet expansionism. This policy found many friends, each of whom was rewared by economic assistance. As Pakistan's search for friends was keeping along ineffectually and the struggle for Kashmir was particularly unsuccessful (in 1952, the Soviet Union openly sided with India), Pakistan eagerly grasped Mr.Dulles's outstretched hands. Soviet leaders had extented an invitation to Mr.Liaquat Ali Khan to visit Soviet Union but he prefered to the United States first. The choice of Liaquat Ali Khan of visiting the United States of America first displeased the Cremelin.

In this situation Pakistan and the United States signed a mutual defence agreement in 1954 and in 1955 Pakistan joined CENTO. Ambassador Chester Bowles in India returned to Unites States. Pakistan has found a friend in United States, it presumed, would support it against "neutral and impartialist" India. The United States has found a friend which, it presumed, was stalwart in its opposition to international communism. Both the countries particularly Pakistan ignored the basis facts of international relations, diplomacy and of life.

Growing affection between Pakistan and America was phenomenal. The United States government policy over-looked Nehru's attempt to be neutral between the Soviet Communists and American anti-communists. To Pakistan any foe of Nehru's was a friend of Pakistan. Pakistan feared Soviet expansionism and India's anti-Pakistan activities and stood unhesitatingly on the side of the Western allies. Pakistan also saw what could be gained through alliance with the United States in terms of economic and military development. Pakistan started receiving aids. By 1963 the cost of military hardware and personnel training exceeded US Dollor 1,000,000,000. Nearly all sector of Pakistan's economic and social development Corporation, loans helped start hundreds of small and medium size factories. Meanwhile, private Americal philanthropic agencies and universities gave help to programmes in birth control, village development and urban planning. Agricultural projects, especially those involving irrigation, soil improvement and rural education remained backing. Few countries in the world had gained more, economically and value of economic aid to pakistan was US $ 1,500,000,000 or approximately $ 15 per person. India in the same period received 3,900,000,000 in economic aid from the United States or about $ 9 Per Person.

In 1961, President Ayub Khan made a triumphal visit to the United States and spoke before a Joint session of Congress. America found him genial, out-spoken and Obviously a friend. But still, Kashmir remained in Indian hands and, in 1963, there was no sign that Pakistan's friendship with the United States was helping solve the Problem which was the most important one for Pakistan.

The invasion of Chinese territory by Indian forces in 1962 led both the countries to re-examine their policies. The United States and Great Britain offered to aid India. During the Sino-India war of 1962, The US asked Pakistan to help India against China because at the time American's themselves were involved in the Cuba missile affair and could not jump into another crisis directly. On April 15, 1963, Pakistan's Foreign Minister emphatically declared that "If India should receive massive military assistance from the Western powers without a solution of the kashmir dispute, it would mark a turning point for Pakistan and the abandonment of our friends and allies". As military aid began to flow into India - and Chester Bowles returned to New Delhi to herald the renewed frienddship. Mr.Bhutto, the then foreign Minister indicated that Pakistan's Foreign policy would be reshaped. Although the United States had assured Pakistan that the military build of India would not be used against Pakistan yet Pakistan was unsatified.

The Foreign Minister of Pakistan and United States officials met in Washington. The United States announced that it has been agreed to recognise Pakistan's fear of India, althought it was apparent that the United States Policy-makers did not share this fear. Many Pakistani's understood that the United States is unreliable. The United States soon made it clear to the Pakistan that it would build its anti-China policy around India, regardless of Pakistan's policies and fear, When India attacked Pakistan in 1965, the United States not only remained neutral but also stopped military aid and delivery of spare parpts to Pakistan. Again in 1971, she repeated her old policy which assured every Pakistani that United States not only favours India but also Pakistan has no space in her policies of international relation, depsite the fact that Pakistan worked as a bridge between United States and China to hold talks and establish the diplomatic relations.

The United States always opposed the atomic policy of Pakistan and pressurized her to sign N.P.T without critisizing the atomic policy of India. The United States does not treat equally India and Pakistan. Now she has stopped all aid to Pakistan unless Pakistan is willing to sign N.P.T which Pakistan has refused to sign.

After the Russian dis-integration there was a total change in American policy towards Pakistan. The then Prime Minister Benazir Bhtto had visited Unites States in June, 1989, and adressed the congress and expressed her views and clarified the policies of her government. Her visit created a conductive atmosphere between the two countries, and it was hoped that the reltionships between two countries would improve but her government was dismissed.

Mrs.Benazir Bhutto again visited the United States during 1993 on behalf on the I.J.I government, where she met the top officials of Clinton administration but the report about her visit varies. She again visited the United States in 1995, as a Prime minister and she was sucessful in convincing the U.S Administration regarding attitude towards Pakistan. There was a hope the under Brown amendment Pakistan may reveive the aidSuspender under Presler's amendment.

Pakistan's never tire of calling US and unreliable ally, a fair weather friend, who has always been partial to, and soft on, India. This has always been a measure of our won naivety and simplicity. While such qualities as morality, faithfulness, etc, may be desire in personal relationships, "in international reltionships there are no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent national interests". It is also widely known that there is no morality in international relationships. It is high time we awoke from our dream-world and looked upon the real world. Inspite of the imposition of sanctions on India, it would be realistic to expect the USA, and being the sole world Super power today is the only country that matters, to tilt heavily in favour of Pakistan, and against India, on the promise of the formoer not carrying out its own nuclear tests in tit-for-tat reaction, or to play to the galleries, consequences to damned. Let us not forget that India is a regional power, our own continued defiance not with standing, and given a choice, the US will tilt in favour of India when the chips are down.


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